By William N. Venables, David M. Smith
This guide presents an creation to "R", a software program package deal for statistical computing and photos. R is loose software program, dispensed lower than the GNU normal Public License. it may be used with GNU/Linux, Unix and Microsoft home windows.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to R
This is discussed further in Chapter 7 [Reading data from files], page 30. 2 attach() and detach() The $ notation, such as accountants$statef, for list components is not always very convenient. A useful facility would be somehow to make the components of a list or data frame temporarily visible as variables under their component name, without the need to quote the list name explicitly each time. Chapter 6: Lists and data frames 28 The attach() function, as well as having a directory name as its argument, may also have a data frame.
1 Lists An R list is an object consisting of an ordered collection of objects known as its components. There is no particular need for the components to be of the same mode or type, and, for example, a list could consist of a numeric vector, a logical value, a matrix, a complex vector, a character array, a function, and so on. ages=c(4,7,9)) Components are always numbered and may always be referred to as such. Thus if Lst is the name of a list with four components, these may be individually referred to as Lst[], Lst[], Lst[] and Lst[].
If the global or top-level environment is reached without finding the symbol total then that variable is created and assigned to there. For most users <<- creates a global variable and assigns the value of the right hand side to it2 . Only when <<- has been used in a function that was returned as the value of another function will the special behavior described here occur. \n") total <<- total + amount cat(amount, "deposited. \n") total <<- total - amount cat(amount, "withdrawn. account(200) ross$withdraw(30) ross$balance() robert$balance() 2 In some sense this mimics the behavior in S-Plus since in S-Plus this operator always creates or assigns to a global variable.