By Dr Maartje Abbenhuis
An Age of Neutrals offers a pioneering historical past of neutrality in Europe and the broader international among the Congress of Vienna and the outbreak of the 1st global conflict. The 'long' 19th century (1815-1914) was once an period of unheard of industrialization, imperialism and globalization; one that witnessed Europe's financial and political hegemony the world over. Dr Maartje Abbenhuis explores the ways that neutrality bolstered those interconnected advancements. She argues passive perception of neutrality has to date avoided historians from knowing the excessive regard with which neutrality, as a device of international relations and statecraft and as a favored perfect with quite a few purposes, used to be held. This compelling new heritage exposes neutrality as a colourful and crucial a part of the nineteenth-century foreign approach; a strong software utilized by nice and small powers to unravel disputes, stabilize diplomacy and advertise numerous pursuits inside and outdoors the continent.
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Additional info for An Age of Neutrals: Great Power Politics, 1815-1914
50–1; H. Ragsdale, ‘Russian foreign policy, 1725– 1815’ in The Cambridge history of Russia. Volume 2 Imperial Russia 1689–1917. Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 512. Madariaga, Armed neutrality, pp. 445–6. Cf C. C. Hyde, ‘International co-operation for neutrality’, University of Pennsylvania Law Review 85, 1937, pp. 244–357. Hershey, ‘History of international law’, pp. 42–3. Welling, The prize, p. 192. Welling, The prize, pp. 3, 28; Madariaga, Armed neutrality, p. 377. 39 A letter sent in 1795 by the English author Mary Wollstonecraft highlights some of the wider concerns about the conduct of neutrals.
C. W. , The nineteenth century. Europe 1789–1914. Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 158–209. M. Lyons, Post-revolutionary Europe 1815–1856. Houndsmills, Palgrave MacMillan, 2006, esp. pp. 1–21. Schroeder, Transformation, pp. 579–80, 586–93. 4 There is, therefore, much to be said for Schroeder’s argument that the Congress of Vienna was one of the most successful peace settlements of all time. For while the European states initiated and were involved in numerous wars and conflicts around the globe between 1815 and 1914, at no stage did any of these conflagrations turn into a Europe-wide affair.
41 By 1805, when the reputation of neutrals in Britain was at its lowest point, a London lawyer published an immensely popular pamphlet entitled War in disguise. Or the frauds of neutral flags, in which he proclaimed that neutrals were aiding the enemy French in sustaining the war by illegally supplying them with war materials. He also chastised the neutrals for becoming extraordinarily wealthy in the process. 42 After the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, which gave Britain clear naval supremacy over the French in the Atlantic, the position of neutrals became more precarious.