By Philip Hanson
Ebook via Hanson, Philip
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Extra info for Advertising and Socialism: The Nature and Extent of Consumer Advertising in the Soviet Union, Poland, Hungary and Yugoslavia
The work of the Gorky council is discussed as a model for this sort of local co-ordination in (9b), pp. 3-10. 14. I 8 1 9 28 Advertising and Socialism laundering and dry cleaning. On the whole, however, advertising organisations have not been created by producers on anything approaching the scale of the trade advertising organisations. While some producer ministries have developed market research organisations, the nuclei of advertising agencies seem to be developing entirely within the distributive system.
But it seems also that, at least from about 1965 onwards, demand for advertising services had tended to outrun supply. The level of advertising expenditure in any one year has almost certainly been held down by constraints on the supply side. The rate of growth may also have been held down, though this is less clear. The main constraints are the result either of past history, reflected in the shortages of specialised equipment and skills needed in advertising, or of the continuation of the system of central control in the advertising media themselves.
It is true that this happens in many markets in a Western economy. However, there is much more frequent price adjustment in market economies, even in markets with administered oligopoly prices. Inflationary pressure is comroo n to both systems, so that the consumer tends in the West to be faced with rising prices and in a Soviet-type economy with shortages. Precisely how the two categories of sufficient and defitsitnyi goods are distinguished in Soviet practice is not clear. For practical purposes, it seems, a 'sufficient' consumer good is one for which distributive stocks exceed stock norms, and a defitsitnyi product is one to which the opposite applies.