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By Andrew McGregor

Egypt has one of many oldest civilizations and proudest nationwide histories on the earth, yet so much army histories deal with it as a trifling battleground for different nice imperial powers corresponding to the Ottoman Empire, the French, and the British. In a full of life and stirring narrative, this paintings tells the untold tale of the Egyptian adventure. It appears on the lives of Egyptian infantrymen battling at domestic and overseas, and indicates the jobs these infantrymen and their leaders have performed in Middle-Eastern and global historical past for 500 years—especially within the convulsions that experience reworked the Muslim global up to now centuries.Beginning with an outline of Egypt's old and medieval history, the booklet then explores Ottoman army rule, explaining how a tiny Turkish-speaking minority maintained absolute energy via preserving army wisdom out of the snatch of local Egyptians. Readers will see how Napoleon's failed Egyptian crusade of 1798 brought the state to Europe yet, extra very important, introduced sleek Western affects to Egypt. through the nineteenth century, new palms and strategies and the emerging strength of nationalism remodeled Egypt because the empire of the Ottoman Turks slowly decayed. Independence used to be thwarted by way of the British, who took over the rustic within the Eighties to safe hyperlinks to India. but the British cleared the path for independence, retraining and strengthening the Egyptian army to make it the most powerful and such a lot nationalist strength within the kingdom. eventually, McGregor's ultimate chapters examine Arab nationalism, and on the Egyptian military within the wars of the overdue twentieth century.

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Extra info for A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War

Sample text

Unfortunately for Napoleon, some French functionaries interfered with an incoming caravan from Darfur, and his relations with the sultan suddenly grew cold. On August 1, 1798, Lord Nelson finally caught the French fleet in Abukir Bay. In an epic sea battle the French fleet was completely destroyed and nearly 4,000 French sailors killed or wounded. Until the ships could be replaced, Bonaparte’s army was trapped in Egypt. Islam and the French Military Occupation Bonaparte took a just-finished palace belonging to Muhammad al-Alfi Bey as his Cairo headquarters.

Amir Sudun al-Ajami, the Mamluk commander in chief, led a thundering charge of Mamluks The Ottoman left flank began to collapse under the fury of the attack, threatening the rest of the army. The Mamluks now began a series of ferocious dashes against the center, almost forcing Salim to abandon the field, but the muskets of the Janissary infantry and the Ottoman artillery drove them back repeatedly. Amir Sudun and Amir Sibay were killed, and Kha’irbay suddenly led his Mamluks off the battlefield.

The Istanbul-based Ahmad was unhappy with his appointment, having believed himself to be next in line for the grand viziership. It was certainly an odd choice by the sultan to send a bitter Circassian to rule over the still dangerous and rebellious Circassian Mamluks in Egypt. There may be some truth to the story that the sultan sent orders to the Janissaries in Cairo to murder Ahmad on his arrival; the plot was foiled when Ahmad intercepted the instructions en route. It was not long before Ahmad began executions of high-ranking civil and military officials.

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