Download A History of the Low Countries (Palgrave Essential by Paul Arblaster PDF

By Paul Arblaster

Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg are 3 particularly small nations whose contribution to Europe's financial, religious and inventive historical past has been vast. Their histories can't be written in isolation from each other, or from their neighbours.

In the 1st complete historic survey of the Benelux quarter to be written in English, Paul Arblaster describes the complete sweep of the historical past of the Low nations, from Roman frontier provinces via to the institution of the 3 constitutional monarchies of the current day. during this revised and up to date re-creation, Arblaster:

? accommodates the newest scholarship and up to date occasions, bringing the tale correct as much as today
? presents clean assurance of immigration, multiculturalism, and the resurgence of nationalism within the Low Countries
? deals a short dialogue of the increase of secularism in Western Europe and the way this has affected the Benelux region
? outlines the international locations' fresh monetary successes and failures
? features a new record of political events and governments on account that 1918

A heritage of the Low Countries is perfect for these looking a concise and readable creation to the historical past of a quarter which, for hundreds of years, has been on the crossroads of Western Europe.

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38 FROM PAGANS TO CRUSADERS , 57 BC TO A D 1100 The Ottonian System In 962, after a series of successful campaigns against the Hungarians and against the pope’s political opponents in Italy, Otto was crowned emperor in Rome. As emperor he favoured the development of ‘imperial churches’, granting land and jurisdiction to minsters and abbeys. Since ecclesiastical offices could not become hereditary, and the emperor appointed the prelates, a body of educated and dedicated local power-holders could be put in place whose first loyalty was to the emperor as the head of Christian society.

The Batavian general M. Cassianus Latinius Postumus, legate of Lower Germany, had some success in withstanding them. In 258 he proclaimed himself emperor, and he obtained recognition from the provincial governors of Gaul, Britain and Iberia. Two hundred years after the Roman conquest, a Batavian had gained the much fought-over title of Caesar. The Western Empire was divided into a ‘Roman Empire’ under Gallienus, and a ‘Gallic Empire’ under Postumus, who died in 269. Postumus overhauled the defensive structures of the Belgic province, giving greater depth to the military frontier by constructing a series of watch towers combined with fortified store bases along the road from Cologne to Boulogne, and possibly on other routes.

The Frankish custom of dividing an inheritance among all the heirs meant that their kingdom was in constant flux, reunited and redivided according to variations in royal fertility and survival. Nor does family affection appear to have done much to prevent the in-fighting kings and queens of the Franks from speeding their rivals to childless deaths. Members of the nobility who were felt to be a threat were no safer, and nor were bishops and hermits who got in the way. One of the many attractions of monastic life for the Frankish elite must have been its relative insulation from the literally cut-throat world of the court.

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