By Heinz Kramer
Turkey is a longstanding best friend of the us and Europe. After the death of the Soviet empire, Turkey's strategic value has replaced yet no longer lowered. at the present time Turkey is dealing with a totally various international and protection coverage setting. even though, Turkey is additionally present process amazing inner swap. Many verified political truths of the Republic's seventy-five-year-long culture are more and more wondered through a starting to be a part of its humans. principally, there's the increase of political Islam and the consequent conflict of ideologies among "secularists" and "Islamists" in addition to the controversy approximately Turkey's "Kurdish reality." Turkey's allies should reply to this improvement by means of adapting their rules. not anything lower than a re-examination and, ultimately, a re-orientation in relatives with either the us and Europe is needed if Turkey is to stay anchored within the West. This booklet undertakes a entire evaluation and research of Turkey's inner and exterior adjustments and offers parts of a brand new ecu and American coverage towards a key strategic accomplice.
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Extra resources for A Changing Turkey: The Challenge to Europe and the United States (Studies in Foreign Policy)
Since the early 1990s the military has been instrumental in defining the parameters of Turkish policy in the Middle East as it had long done for Greek-Turkish relations. In both areas the security policy prerogatives as defined by the military command set the priorities for foreign policy behavior. The extension of the fight against the Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK) across the Turkish border into northern Iraq was a decision made by the military without much consultation with the civilian government.
10 Instead, the new constitutional and legal framework contributed to the fragmentation of the political center and greater political instability. This became especially evident after the return to the practice of coalition governments in 1991, which also marked the return of the old political elites to the controls. At the end of its term the parliament elected in 1995 counted representatives of ten different parties, and the last two governments before the 1999 early elections were minority governments that could survive only by the support of other parties.
As a consequence of the economic and social modernization that started in the 1980s, a civil society has developed. The people, accustomed to a ready-made state tradition, have begun to organize to protect their rights against economic and political power and have taken first steps for a transformation of society from bottom to top in contradiction to the established practice of top-down social engineering by the state. The public perception of the state's role in structuring society is about to undergo a fundamental change from the pre-1980s years.